In a single page, present the statement of the purpose of the study (i.e., by completing the
statement, The purpose of the study is to…) and then follow up with the relevant research
questions. Remember, the Purpose of the Study is to gain information to address the problem
introduced in Assignment 1 (Statement of the Problem) and reviewed in Assignment 2
(Literature Review). The purpose statement should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of
the overall purpose of the study (Locke, Spirduso, & Silverman, 1987, p. 5). Note that the
purpose of the study is being use generically for either a dissertation study or a strategic research
project proposed study.
Key points to keep in mind when preparing a purpose statement:
? Create a sentence that begins with The purpose of this study is to . . .
? Clearly identify and define the central concepts or ideas of the study.
Next, develop your research questions. Refer to Creswell Chapter 4 and Ch. 4 PPT for an in-
depth overview of developing research questions. A research question poses a relationship
between two or more variables, but phrases the relationship as a question and should adhere to
the following guidelines: (a) formation of question or questions are based on theory, previous
research (i.e., the literature review), and experience; (b) stated in the form of a question; and (c)
are focused and clear (i.e., specific and feasible).
Examples taken from Creswell (2012):
Descriptive Question (Quantitative)- Use the following script: How frequently do (participants)
(variable) at (research site)? Application: How frequently do African Americans feel isolated on
Relationship Question (Quantitative)- Script: How does (independent variable) relate to
(dependent variable) for (participants) at (research site)? Application: How do feelings of
isolation relate to (or influence) the ethnic identity of African Americans in the United States?
Comparison Question (Quantitative)- Script: How does (group 1) differ from (group 2) in terms
of (dependent variable) for the (participants) at (research site)? Application: How do African
Americans and Euro Americans compare in their perceptions of ethnic identity?
Central Question (Qualitative)- Script: What is (central phenomenon) for (participants) at
(research site)? Application: What is creativity for five students at Roosevelt High School?
**Please Note: These are simply suggestions for the types of research questions you can have;
Students should NOT submit one of each type of question. The type of question(s) you use
depends entirely on your research problem and purpose statement.
Nova Southeastern University
Methods of Inquiry
Dr. Franklin Till
March 13, 2022
Over the years, there have been perceptions that a teaching career is very challenging,
and it tends to cause stress and burnout to educators. Undoubtedly, students bring different
experiences in class, while lessons preparations may be tiresome. The different facets may be
outside of the educator’s control, causing the nature of the work to be challenging and thus
the stress. Educators’ stress impacts the education system, the individual teacher, and the
overall organization (Hydon et al., 2015). This paper aims at examining the topic from a
theoretical perspective. Essentially, educators’ stress is caused by various interacting
variables, such as organizational factors and person-specific. Since the problem has been
rising each day, researchers have conducted numerous studies to understand the actual causes
of the problem, the consequences, and the management approaches and techniques to use to
mitigate the problem. Educators’ stress needs to be addressed by supporting them to ensure
better services to students.
The need to mitigate
Male educators Transactional theory
of stress Female educators
Sources of stress
The nature of educators’
stress (Herman et al (2018),
Sadeghi and Khezrlou
(2016), Kourmousi and
Shah, Khan and Gul
(2012), Greenburg et al
(2016), Schonfeld et al
coping (Nagra and Kaur
(2014), Greenburg et al
(2016), Skaalvik and
The problem of educators’ stress is grounded in the transactional theory of stress. This
theory was initially developed by Lazarus and Folkman in 1984 and was primarily used to
study stress among educators and how they can cope with the problem using various
processes. The theory indicates that the capacity of any individual to cope and adjust to
problems and challenges is due to interactions between them and their environment (Biggs et
al., 2017). Initially, the theory defines stress as a cognitive, emotional, and physiological
experience when environmental demands are high compared to the individual resources to
adapt. The theory’s primary focus is to assess educators to evaluate threats, damages, and
challenges they face. The product of the evaluation is a process description of how to handle
different stressful situations.
The teaching profession is stressful and has exhibited high-stress levels than any other
profession. Educators struggle with stress on their daily tasks or other institutional factors. In
their efforts to fight exhaustion, their ability to cope with the emotional and social demands
may affect their well-being. However, the stress in schools and well-being is mainly centered
on meeting the needs of students, excluding educators’ needs-their needs should be included
as well (Skaalvik and Skaalvik, 2015). Over the years, researchers have conducted an
extensive study to understand educators’ stress, although the issue gas shown to take a new
shape and direction with the evolving world. Undoubtedly, educators must be stress-free to
teach stress among people effectively. This literature review covers educators’ stress causes,
consequences, and interventions to cope with the issue.
The nature of educators’ stress
Most educators report in class while mentally stressed. A study by Herman et al.
(2018) to understand the relationship between stress, self-efficacy, burnout, and coping
revealed that teaching is a stressful profession. According to the study, general education
teachers were selected from nine different district schools. All schools had implemented a
school-wide high fidelity PBIS thus providing behavior support programs uniformity across
the interventions and control school. Ninety-five percent of the participants were female,
while the rest were male. Also, the participants were a mixture of different ethnic groups
across the United States. Educators completed self-report measures on their stress and
burnout levels. The results revealed that stress among teachers is a common issue, although
they showed a high level of coping with the situations.
Similarly, Sadeghi and Khezrlou revealed that employed individuals nowadays find
the workplace being stressful than it used to be. The researchers aimed at understanding the
source of educators’ stress as a source of job dissatisfaction while supporting them to survive
their profession. Similarly, participants were selected on their marital status basis, where 149
educators were selected. The overall design involved a questionnaire, which most of its items
measured the source of stress. The results revealed that most educators suffer from job-
related stress in different ways, following questions such as the rate of satisfaction as an
Moreover, another study by Kourmousi and Alexopoulos aimed to explore the
association of sources of stress and the manifestation with job characteristics and educators in
all levels of educators used a cross-sectional design. Participants or respondents completed an
online inventory (teachers stress inventory, TSI). The TSI contained fourteen items on the
perceived stress scale. The respondents were selected from both genders, having 2473 female
and 974 male educators from all levels. Younger educators and women reported high-stress
levels due to insufficient time, gastronomic and emotional manifestations, and other work-
related stressors. Also, more experienced educators and elder ones did not experience much
In contrast, educators who work and reside far from their families experience more stress
related to motivation, control, and investment. Thus, stress manifestations and factors vary
among educators by teaching level, seniority, gender, age, and experience. The researchers
suggest that training educators’ comnunication skills and coping from undergraduate level
would asist significantly affect educators’ stress alleviation.
A narrative overview by Khan, Shah, Khan and Gul (2012) studied stress and
performance among educators to understand the consequences of stress. A sample of teachers
was selected examined through questionnaires and class records. The result revealed that
teaching stress has adverse effects on educators’ performance, and factors within their
institutions were the leading causes of stress. Greenburg et al. (2016) revealed that teachers’
high-stress levels affect the overall students’ academic performance. Similarly, Schonfeld et
al. (2017) carried out a study to understand the consequences of stress among educators. The
findings involved linking data from previously conducted studies and hospitals. From the
findings, it was realized that stress among educators adversely affects their mental health.
Interventions and coping
Educators have used moderate coping strategies to relieve occupational stresses facing
them (Nagra and Kaur, 2014). A sample of 200 educators was selected from different
learning institutions based on the nature of the job, gender, and subject stream. The stress
level was measured using the Stress index while coping strategies were determined using a
scale. Educators experienced moderate levels, and they tried to cope with the situations when
they faced them.
A study by Greenburg et al. (2016) to understand causes, effects, and strategies to
reduce the consequences showed that more than 45 percent of teachers are subjected to daily
stress, affecting their quality of life, sleep, health, and health teaching performance.
Therefore, interventions on an individual or organizational level help mitigate stress by
changing the approach and culture to teaching. Also, programs for mentoring, mindfulness,
social-emotional learning and workplace wellness have improved educators’ well-being and
students’ academic performance. Skaalvik and Skaalvik’s (2021) study to understand
educators’ perception of job demand and the coping strategies when responding to demands
involved six educators in the elementary school. Data was collected using interviews, audio-
recorded, and transcribed. Educators use a variety of coping strategies, including hard-
working, recovering strategies, reducing the workload, job crafting, and help-seeking
Educators’ stress continues to be an issue of concern in learning institutions across the
world. However, it is essential to recognize what causes them to be stressed, with
interventions to assist them from a theoretical perspective. Although there has been extensive
research, the evolution in the world, primarily through technology, has changed the way of
doing things. Therefore, more research is needed regarding educators’ peace of mind. Perhaps
the biggest challenge is the school lacking an understanding of the modern and current
interventions or lacking urgency to prioritize professional developmental time in the area of
reducing stress among educating. However, increasing the number of positive psychology
interventions to build teachers’ emotional and social competencies is promising. This can
assist them in managing their common stressors and provide good support to students in the
long run. Since stress negatively affects well-being, the overall process prioritizes educators’
well-being. While the interests in their well-being continue to grow, the necessary bodies
seem to prioritize students’ well-being most, where they allocate the right time and funds,
leaving educators with a challenge of managing students’ needs with their own resources.
While supporting learners is advisable, it is good to support and prioritize educators first.
This will assist them to feel supported and improve their well-being, positively impacting
learners’ academic performance.
Biggs, A., Brough, P., & Drummond, S. (2017). Lazarus and Folkman’s psychological stress
and coping theory. The handbook of stress and health: A guide to research and
Consequences of job stress for the mental health of teachers. (n.d.). SpringerLink.
Dr. Nagra1 V and Ms. Kaur2 H, Occupational stress and coping strategies among secondary
school teachers. (n.d.). Semantic Scholar | AI-Powered Research Tool.
Greenberg, M. T., Brown, J. L., & Abenavoli, R. M. (2016). Teacher stress and health effects
on teachers, students, and schools. Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center,
Pennsylvania State University, 1-12.
Herman, K. C., Hickmon-Rosa, J. E., & Reinke, W. M. (2018). Empirically derived profiles
of teacher stress, burnout, self-efficacy, and coping and associated student outcomes.
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(2), 90-100.
Hydon, S., Wong, M., Langley, A. K., Stein, B. D., & Kataoka, S. H. (2015). Preventing
secondary traumatic stress in educators. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics,
24(2), 319-333. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2014.11.003
Kourmousi, N., & Alexopoulos, E. C. (2016). Stress sources and manifestations in Greece’s
nationwide sample of pre-primary, primary, and secondary educators. Frontiers in
public health, 4, 73. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00073
Sadeghi, K., & Sa’adatpourvahid, M. (2016). EFL Teachers’ Stress and Job Satisfaction:
What Contribution Can Teacher Education Make?. Iranian Journal of Language
Teaching Research, 4(3), 75-96. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1127347
Skaalvik, E. and Skaalvik, S. (2021) Teacher Stress and Coping StrategiesThe Struggle to
Stay in Control. Creative Education, 12, 1273-1295. DOI:
Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2015). Job Satisfaction, Stress, and Coping Strategies in the
Teaching Profession-What Do Teachers Say?. International education studies, 8(3),