In a single page, present the statement of the purpose of the study (i.e., by completing the
statement, “The purpose of the study is to…”) and then follow up with the relevant research
questions. Remember, the Purpose of the Study is to gain information to address the problem
introduced in Assignment 1 (Statement of the Problem) and reviewed in Assignment 2
(Literature Review). “The purpose statement should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of
the overall purpose of the study” (Locke, Spirduso, & Silverman, 1987, p. 5).  Note that the
purpose of the study is being use generically for either a dissertation study or a strategic research
project proposed study.
Key points to keep in mind when preparing a purpose statement:

? Create a sentence that begins with “The purpose of this study is to . . .”
? Clearly identify and define the central concepts or ideas of the study.

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Next, develop your research questions. Refer to Creswell Chapter 4 and Ch. 4 PPT for an in-
depth overview of developing research questions. A research question poses a relationship
between two or more variables, but phrases the relationship as a question and should adhere to
the following guidelines: (a) formation of question or questions are based on theory, previous
research (i.e., the literature review), and experience; (b) stated in the form of a question; and (c)
are focused and clear (i.e., specific and feasible).
Examples taken from Creswell (2012):
Descriptive Question (Quantitative)- Use the following script: How frequently do (participants)
(variable) at (research site)? Application: How frequently do African Americans feel isolated on
college campuses?
Relationship Question (Quantitative)- Script: How does (independent variable) relate to
(dependent variable) for (participants) at (research site)? Application: How do feelings of
isolation relate to (or influence) the ethnic identity of African Americans in the United States?
Comparison Question (Quantitative)- Script: How does (group 1) differ from (group 2) in terms
of (dependent variable) for the (participants) at (research site)? Application: How do African
Americans and Euro Americans compare in their perceptions of ethnic identity?
Central Question (Qualitative)- Script: What is (central phenomenon) for (participants) at
(research site)? Application: What is creativity for five students at Roosevelt High School?
**Please Note: These are simply suggestions for the types of research questions you can have;
Students should NOT submit one of each type of question. The type of question(s) you use
depends entirely on your research problem and purpose statement.


Educator stress

Shawneequa Beal

Nova Southeastern University

Methods of Inquiry

Dr. Franklin Till

March 13, 2022


Educator stress

Over the years, there have been perceptions that a teaching career is very challenging,

and it tends to cause stress and burnout to educators. Undoubtedly, students bring different

experiences in class, while lessons preparations may be tiresome. The different facets may be

outside of the educator’s control, causing the nature of the work to be challenging and thus

the stress. Educators’ stress impacts the education system, the individual teacher, and the

overall organization (Hydon et al., 2015). This paper aims at examining the topic from a

theoretical perspective. Essentially, educators’ stress is caused by various interacting

variables, such as organizational factors and person-specific. Since the problem has been

rising each day, researchers have conducted numerous studies to understand the actual causes

of the problem, the consequences, and the management approaches and techniques to use to

mitigate the problem. Educators’ stress needs to be addressed by supporting them to ensure

better services to students.

Literature map

The need to mitigate
educators stress

Male educators Transactional theory
of stress Female educators

Sources of stress

The nature of educators’
stress (Herman et al (2018),
Sadeghi and Khezrlou
(2016), Kourmousi and

Consequences (Khan,
Shah, Khan and Gul
(2012), Greenburg et al
(2016), Schonfeld et al

Interventions and
coping (Nagra and Kaur
(2014), Greenburg et al
(2016), Skaalvik and
Skaalvik (2021).

Steven Hecht
do you mean stress in males and females? Since you have different boxes for each gender is suggests that you wish to contrast the sources of stress which may be the same or may differ depending on the gender of the teacher, right?
Steven Hecht
Steven Hecht
Steven Hecht
do you mean consequences can lead to additional stress? If not, then perhaps this box needs be taken out of here and places beside sources of stress (and literature pertaining to the different consequences of stress listed undernieth with references).
Steven Hecht
Steven Hecht
Steven Hecht
sources of stress (be specific about what the facets are).


Theoretical perspective

The problem of educators’ stress is grounded in the transactional theory of stress. This

theory was initially developed by Lazarus and Folkman in 1984 and was primarily used to

study stress among educators and how they can cope with the problem using various

processes. The theory indicates that the capacity of any individual to cope and adjust to

problems and challenges is due to interactions between them and their environment (Biggs et

al., 2017). Initially, the theory defines stress as a cognitive, emotional, and physiological

experience when environmental demands are high compared to the individual resources to

adapt. The theory’s primary focus is to assess educators to evaluate threats, damages, and

challenges they face. The product of the evaluation is a process description of how to handle

different stressful situations.

Literature review


The teaching profession is stressful and has exhibited high-stress levels than any other

profession. Educators struggle with stress on their daily tasks or other institutional factors. In

their efforts to fight exhaustion, their ability to cope with the emotional and social demands

may affect their well-being. However, the stress in schools and well-being is mainly centered

on meeting the needs of students, excluding educators’ needs-their needs should be included

as well (Skaalvik and Skaalvik, 2015). Over the years, researchers have conducted an

extensive study to understand educators’ stress, although the issue gas shown to take a new

shape and direction with the evolving world. Undoubtedly, educators must be stress-free to

teach stress among people effectively. This literature review covers educators’ stress causes,

consequences, and interventions to cope with the issue.

Steven Hecht
a reference for this statement of fact is needed here.
Steven Hecht
ok, now the reader needs to knoww what that different direction is. At present i have no way to know what you mean here. Examples would be helpful to make clear how stress has changed over time.
Steven Hecht


The nature of educators’ stress

Most educators report in class while mentally stressed. A study by Herman et al.

(2018) to understand the relationship between stress, self-efficacy, burnout, and coping

revealed that teaching is a stressful profession. According to the study, general education

teachers were selected from nine different district schools. All schools had implemented a

school-wide high fidelity PBIS thus providing behavior support programs uniformity across

the interventions and control school. Ninety-five percent of the participants were female,

while the rest were male. Also, the participants were a mixture of different ethnic groups

across the United States. Educators completed self-report measures on their stress and

burnout levels. The results revealed that stress among teachers is a common issue, although

they showed a high level of coping with the situations.

Similarly, Sadeghi and Khezrlou revealed that employed individuals nowadays find

the workplace being stressful than it used to be. The researchers aimed at understanding the

source of educators’ stress as a source of job dissatisfaction while supporting them to survive

their profession. Similarly, participants were selected on their marital status basis, where 149

educators were selected. The overall design involved a questionnaire, which most of its items

measured the source of stress. The results revealed that most educators suffer from job-

related stress in different ways, following questions such as the rate of satisfaction as an


Moreover, another study by Kourmousi and Alexopoulos aimed to explore the

association of sources of stress and the manifestation with job characteristics and educators in

all levels of educators used a cross-sectional design. Participants or respondents completed an

online inventory (teachers stress inventory, TSI). The TSI contained fourteen items on the

perceived stress scale. The respondents were selected from both genders, having 2473 female

Steven Hecht
write this acronym out the first time it is used since the reader may not be familiar with it.
Steven Hecht
be sure to put the date in parentheses for all articles cited.


and 974 male educators from all levels. Younger educators and women reported high-stress

levels due to insufficient time, gastronomic and emotional manifestations, and other work-

related stressors. Also, more experienced educators and elder ones did not experience much


In contrast, educators who work and reside far from their families experience more stress

related to motivation, control, and investment. Thus, stress manifestations and factors vary

among educators by teaching level, seniority, gender, age, and experience. The researchers

suggest that training educators’ comnunication skills and coping from undergraduate level

would asist significantly affect educators’ stress alleviation.


A narrative overview by Khan, Shah, Khan and Gul (2012) studied stress and

performance among educators to understand the consequences of stress. A sample of teachers

was selected examined through questionnaires and class records. The result revealed that

teaching stress has adverse effects on educators’ performance, and factors within their

institutions were the leading causes of stress. Greenburg et al. (2016) revealed that teachers’

high-stress levels affect the overall students’ academic performance. Similarly, Schonfeld et

al. (2017) carried out a study to understand the consequences of stress among educators. The

findings involved linking data from previously conducted studies and hospitals. From the

findings, it was realized that stress among educators adversely affects their mental health.

Interventions and coping

Educators have used moderate coping strategies to relieve occupational stresses facing

them (Nagra and Kaur, 2014). A sample of 200 educators was selected from different

learning institutions based on the nature of the job, gender, and subject stream. The stress

level was measured using the Stress index while coping strategies were determined using a

Steven Hecht
I am still not certain how this section its in with your concept map above (and this literature review). Consequences of stress does not seem to be a source of stress.
Steven Hecht
hmm, this sentence almost reads like stress causes stress – high levels of stress IS a mental health issue (it doesn’t cause a mental health issue).
Steven Hecht
I do think a new section on the various consequences of stress is important to include. So whatt are the consequences? Student achievement is one thing; teacher burnout, low job satisfaction, teacher retention problems, etc are consquences that should be included in your review.


scale. Educators experienced moderate levels, and they tried to cope with the situations when

they faced them.

A study by Greenburg et al. (2016) to understand causes, effects, and strategies to

reduce the consequences showed that more than 45 percent of teachers are subjected to daily

stress, affecting their quality of life, sleep, health, and health teaching performance.

Therefore, interventions on an individual or organizational level help mitigate stress by

changing the approach and culture to teaching. Also, programs for mentoring, mindfulness,

social-emotional learning and workplace wellness have improved educators’ well-being and

students’ academic performance. Skaalvik and Skaalvik’s (2021) study to understand

educators’ perception of job demand and the coping strategies when responding to demands

involved six educators in the elementary school. Data was collected using interviews, audio-

recorded, and transcribed. Educators use a variety of coping strategies, including hard-

working, recovering strategies, reducing the workload, job crafting, and help-seeking


Educators’ stress continues to be an issue of concern in learning institutions across the

world. However, it is essential to recognize what causes them to be stressed, with

interventions to assist them from a theoretical perspective. Although there has been extensive

research, the evolution in the world, primarily through technology, has changed the way of

doing things. Therefore, more research is needed regarding educators’ peace of mind. Perhaps

the biggest challenge is the school lacking an understanding of the modern and current

interventions or lacking urgency to prioritize professional developmental time in the area of

reducing stress among educating. However, increasing the number of positive psychology

interventions to build teachers’ emotional and social competencies is promising. This can

assist them in managing their common stressors and provide good support to students in the

long run. Since stress negatively affects well-being, the overall process prioritizes educators’


well-being. While the interests in their well-being continue to grow, the necessary bodies

seem to prioritize students’ well-being most, where they allocate the right time and funds,

leaving educators with a challenge of managing students’ needs with their own resources.

While supporting learners is advisable, it is good to support and prioritize educators first.

This will assist them to feel supported and improve their well-being, positively impacting

learners’ academic performance.



Biggs, A., Brough, P., & Drummond, S. (2017). Lazarus and Folkman’s psychological stress

and coping theory. The handbook of stress and health: A guide to research and

practice, 351-364.




Consequences of job stress for the mental health of teachers. (n.d.). SpringerLink.

Dr. Nagra1 V and Ms. Kaur2 H, Occupational stress and coping strategies among secondary

school teachers. (n.d.). Semantic Scholar | AI-Powered Research Tool.


Greenberg, M. T., Brown, J. L., & Abenavoli, R. M. (2016). Teacher stress and health effects

on teachers, students, and schools. Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center,

Pennsylvania State University, 1-12.

Herman, K. C., Hickmon-Rosa, J. E., & Reinke, W. M. (2018). Empirically derived profiles

of teacher stress, burnout, self-efficacy, and coping and associated student outcomes.

Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(2), 90-100.


Hydon, S., Wong, M., Langley, A. K., Stein, B. D., & Kataoka, S. H. (2015). Preventing

secondary traumatic stress in educators. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics,

24(2), 319-333. DOI:

Kourmousi, N., & Alexopoulos, E. C. (2016). Stress sources and manifestations in Greece’s

nationwide sample of pre-primary, primary, and secondary educators. Frontiers in

public health, 4, 73.

Sadeghi, K., & Sa’adatpourvahid, M. (2016). EFL Teachers’ Stress and Job Satisfaction:

What Contribution Can Teacher Education Make?. Iranian Journal of Language

Teaching Research, 4(3), 75-96.

Skaalvik, E. and Skaalvik, S. (2021) Teacher Stress and Coping Strategies—The Struggle to

Stay in Control. Creative Education, 12, 1273-1295. DOI:


Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2015). Job Satisfaction, Stress, and Coping Strategies in the

Teaching Profession-What Do Teachers Say?. International education studies, 8(3),


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